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The manipulation of the gut microbiota is associated with weight gain, which has been used in the farm animals, as growth promotors, for more than 50 years. The antibiotics were very much used in farm animals. In Europe, their use is not authorized any more since 2002 whereas it is it always in the United States. Probiotics have been used as growth promotors, and are regulated, for 40 years in the farm industry in Europe. Most antibiotics are secreted by Actinomyces used like probiotics, to promote animal growth. The tetracycline was discovered in a probiotic. There are a specificity of the gut microbiota of the obese patients and a specificity of the microbiota of the very thin patients (anorexia or malnutrition). A literature analysis carried out in farm industry, in experimental models and humans, shows that some probiotics, in particular Lactobacillus, can be associated with a significant weight gain (in the birds, the pigs, the mice and humans) while others seem to have a protective effect against obesity. The effectiveness in weight gain is dependent on species and strains. In addition, the antibiotics prescribed in childhood, or for long periods (for example in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori or for endocarditis) are likely to cause very significant weight gain. The gut microbiota depends on nutrition and of the weight of the peoples and the manipulation of this microbiota can involve a considerable weight gain. For this reasons, antibiotics became recommended in the treatment of the severe denutritions.
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